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Not all Knights Templar were warriors. The mission of most of the members was one of support — to acquire resources which could be used to fund and equip the small percentage of members who were fighting on the front lines. There were actually three classes within the orders. The highest class was the knight. When a candidate was sworn into the order, they made the knight a monk. They wore white robes. The knights could hold no property and receive no private letters.
He could not be married or betrothed and cannot have any vow in any other Order. He could not have debt more than he could pay, and no infirmities. The Templar priest class was similar to the modern day military chaplain.
Wearing green robes, they conducted religious services, led prayers, and were assigned record keeping and letter writing. They always wore gloves, unless they were giving Holy Communion. The mounted men-at-arms represented the most common class, and they were called "brothers".
They were usually assigned two horses each and held many positions, including guard, steward, squire or other support vocations.
As the main support staff, they wore black or brown robes and were partially garbed in chain mail or plate mail.
The armor was not as complete as the knights. Because of this infrastructure, the warriors were well-trained and very well armed. Even their horses were trained to fight in combat, fully armored. The Templars were also shrewd tacticians, following the dream of Saint Bernard who had declared that a small force, under the right conditions, could defeat a much larger enemy.
One of the key battles in which this was demonstrated was in , at the Battle of Montgisard. The famous Muslim military leader Saladin was attempting to push toward Jerusalem from the south, with a force of 26, soldiers. Eighty Templar knights and their own entourage attempted to reinforce. Saladin had made a key mistake at that point — instead of keeping his forces together, he permitted his army to temporarily spread out and pillage various villages on their way to Jerusalem. The Templars took advantage of this low state of readiness to launch a surprise ambush directly against Saladin and his bodyguard, at Montgisard near Ramla.
The battle was not the final one with Saladin, but it bought a year of peace for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the victory became a heroic legend.
Another key tactic of the Templars was that of the "squadron charge". A small group of knights and their heavily armed warhorses would gather into a tight unit which would gallop full speed at the enemy lines, with a determination and force of will that made it clear that they would rather commit suicide than fall back.
This terrifying onslaught would frequently have the desired result of breaking a hole in the enemy lines, thereby giving the other Crusader forces an advantage.
Bankers[ edit ] Though initially an Order of poor monks, the official papal sanction made the Knights Templar a charity across Europe. Further resources came in when members joined the Order, as they had to take oaths of poverty , and therefore often donated large amounts of their original cash or property to the Order.
Additional revenue came from business dealings. Since the monks themselves were sworn to poverty, but had the strength of a large and trusted international infrastructure behind them, nobles would occasionally use them as a kind of bank or power of attorney.
If a noble wished to join the Crusades, this might entail an absence of years from their home. So some nobles would place all of their wealth and businesses under the control of Templars, to safeguard it for them until their return. Pilgrims would visit a Templar house in their home country, depositing their deeds and valuables. The Templars would then give them a letter which would describe their holdings. Modern scholars have stated that the letters were encrypted with a cipher alphabet based on a Maltese Cross ; however there is some disagreement on this, and it is possible that the code system was introduced later, and not something used by the medieval Templars themselves.
This kept the pilgrims safe since they were not carrying valuables, and further increased the power of the Templars. Officially the idea of lending money in return for interest was forbidden by the church, but the Order sidestepped this with clever loopholes, such as a stipulation that the Templars retained the rights to the production of mortgaged property. In addition, the high mortality rates of the knights in the East regularly ninety percent in battle, not including wounded resulted in extremely high campaign costs due to the need to recruit and train more knights.
In , at the battle of La Forbie, where only thirty-three of knights survived, it is estimated the financial loss was equivalent to one-ninth of the entire Capetian yearly revenue. Various nobles also had concerns about the Templars as well, both for financial reasons, and nervousness about an independent army that was able to move freely through all borders.
The Battle of Hattin The long-famed military acumen of the Templars began to stumble in the s. On July 4, , came the disastrous Battle of the Horns of Hattin , a turning point in the Crusades. It again involved Saladin, who had been beaten back by the Templars in in the legendary Battle of Montgisard near Tiberias , but this time Saladin was better prepared.
Further, the Grand Master of the Templars was involved in this battle, Gerard de Ridefort , who had just achieved that lifetime position a few years earlier.
He was not known as a good military strategist, and made some deadly errors, such as venturing out with his force of 80 knights without adequate supplies or water, across the arid hill country of Galilee. Within months Saladin captured Jerusalem. But in the early s, in a remarkably short and powerfully effective campaign, Richard the Lionheart, King of England and leader of the Third Crusade, together with his allies the Templars, delivered a series of powerful blows against Saladin and recovered much of Christian territory.
In name and number the revived Crusader states were as before, but their outlines were diminished. There was the Kingdom of Jerusalem, though its capital was at Acre, which the Templars made their new headquarters. To the north was the County of Tripoli.
But the Muslims retained control of the Syrian coast around Latakia for some time, and so the Principality of Antioch further to the north was now no longer contiguous to the other Crusader states. Nevertheless, the Third Crusade, in which Richard relied heavily on the Templars, had saved the Holy Land for the Christians and went a long way towards restoring Frankish fortunes.
In this he was abetted by the military orders, whose great castles stood like islands of Frankish power amid the Muslim torrent. More than ever the Crusader states were relying on the military orders in their castles and on the field of battle, and the power of the orders grew.
In fact at no point in their history would the Templars be more powerful than in the century to come. But after the Siege of Acre in , the Templars were forced to relocate their headquarters to the island of Cyprus. One of his first tasks was to tour across Europe, to raise support for the Order and try to organise another Crusade.
Charles II of Naples and Edward I also pledged varying types of support, either continuing to exempt the Templars from taxes, or pledging future support towards building a new army. They were not successful and soon the fortress of Roche-Guillaume in the Belen Pass , the last Templar stronghold in Antioch, was lost to the Muslims. In , the Templars, along with the Knights Hospitaller and forces from Cyprus attempted to retake the coastal city of Tortosa.
They were able to take the island of Arwad , near Tortosa, but lost it soon after. With the loss of Arwad, the Crusaders had lost their last foothold in the Holy Land.
This unstable situation contributed to their downfall. Fall[ edit ] King Philip had other reasons to mistrust the Templars, as the organization had declared its desire to form its own state, similar to how the Teutonic Knights had founded Prussia. In , the Templars had supported a coup on that island, which had forced King Henry II of Cyprus to abdicate his throne in favor of his brother, Amalric of Tyre. The Templars were already a "state within a state", were institutionally wealthy, paid no taxes, and had a large standing army which by papal decree could move freely through all European borders.
However, this army no longer had a presence in the Holy Land, leaving it with no battlefield. These factors, plus the fact that Philip had inherited an impoverished kingdom from his father and was already deeply in debt to the Templars, were probably what led to his actions.
The Temple case was the last step of a process of appropriating these foundations, which had begun with the Franco-papal rift at the time of Boniface VIII. Then they were put to death. There were five initial charges lodged against the Templars.
The first was the renouncement and spitting on the cross during initiation into the Order. The second was the stripping of the man to be initiated and the thrice kissing of that man by the preceptor on the navel, posteriors and the mouth. The third was telling the neophyte novice that unnatural lust was lawful and indulged in commonly.
The fourth was that the cord worn by the neophyte day and night was consecrated by wrapping it around an idol in the form of a human head with a great beard, and that this idol was adored in all chapters. The fifth was that the priests of the order did not consecrate the host in celebrating Mass.
The lists of articles 86 to  would add many other charges. Of the Templars many of them old men questioned in Paris over the next few years, of them "confessed" to denying Christ during the secret Templar initiations. Throughout the trial there was never any physical evidence of wrongdoing, and no independent witnesses; the only "proof" was obtained through confessions induced by torture.
Despite the fact that the confessions had been produced under duress, they caused a scandal in Paris, with mobs calling for action against the blaspheming Order. In response to this public pressure, along with more bullying from King Philip, Pope Clement issued the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae , which instructed all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize their assets. It is almost impossible to believe, that, under the influence of his carefully chosen advisors the same that had persecuted Boniface , he actually believed the charges to be true.
It is widely accepted that Philip had clearly made up the accusations, some nearly identical to those made against Boniface, and did not believe any of the Templars to have been party to such activities.
Seeing the fate of the Templars, the Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem and of Rhodes were also convinced to give up banking at this time. Many kings and nobles who had been supporting the Knights up until that time, finally acquiesced and dissolved the orders in their fiefs in accordance with the Papal command. Most were not so brutal as the French. In England , many Knights were arrested and tried, but not found guilty.
Much of the Templar property outside France was transferred by the Pope to the Knights Hospitaller, and many surviving Templars were also accepted into the Hospitallers. In the Iberian Peninsula , where the king of Aragon was against giving the heritage of the Templars to the Hospitallers as commanded by Clement V , the Order of Montesa took Templar assets.
The order continued to exist in Portugal , simply changing its name to the Order of Christ. This group was believed to have contributed to the first naval discoveries of the Portuguese.
Prince Henry the Navigator led the Portuguese order for 20 years until the time of his death. Even with the absorption of Templars into other Orders, there are still questions as to what became of all of the tens of thousands of Templars across Europe. There had been 15, "Templar Houses", and an entire fleet of ships.
Even in France where hundreds of Templars had been rounded up and arrested, this was only a small percentage of the estimated 3, Templars in the entire country. Also, the extensive archive of the Templars, with detailed records of all of their business holdings and financial transactions, was never found.
By papal bull it was to have been transferred to the Hospitallers.
Templariusze: chwała i upadek
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