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This Standard was published on 4 June To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published.
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Please address your comments to the Chief Executive of either Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at the address shown on the back cover. This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR Previous Australian editions AS AS Reissued with Amendment No.
No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher. This edition of the Standard includes Amendment No. In order to avoid confusion, the Amendment has not yet been incorporated into the clauses of the Standard because, at the time of publication of the Amendment, they had not yet been referenced by the BCA. However, NZS , General structural design and design loadings for buildings remains current in New Zealand until the publication of all parts including Part 4: Earthquake action and for a transition period afterwards.
The objective of this Standard is to provide designers of structures with values representing the permanent actions, likely actions imposed due to use and occupancy, and other actions appropriate to the type of structure for use in structural design.
Permanent, imposed and other actions. Wind action. Snow action. Earthquake action. This Standard is not equivalent to ISO , Bases for design of structures—Actions due to the self-weight of structures, non-structural elements and stored materials—Density. This Standard is not equivalent to ISO , Loads due to use and occupancy in residential and public buildings or to ISO , Determination of imposed floor loads in production buildings and warehouses. ISO states that the values it gives are the lowest values given in the National Standards that were considered.
It is not used in Europe or North America. This Standard gives values that are either equivalent to or greater than those in ISO This Standard does conform to ISO for all values except for the distributed load for parking, which is given as 3.
This higher value is not used in Europe or North America. Permanent and imposed loads from AS , Farm structures—General requirements for structural design , have been included. The provision for occasional loading of 4. Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables are deemed to be an integral part of this Standard. Notes to the text contain information and guidance and are not considered to be an integral part of the Standard. Permanent actions shall be taken to include the self-weight of the following: a b The structure.
All other materials incorporated into the structure. NOTE: This includes walls, floors, roofs, suspended ceilings and other permanent construction, as appropriate.
NOTE: This includes permanently fixed wiring, reticulated services and other permanent equipment as appropriate. Stored materials where the resultant actions are consistent with the definition for permanent action.
Structures for which provision is to be made for movable partitions shall be designed for the anticipated weight of the partitions placed in any probable positions but not less than a uniformly distributed permanent load of 0.
Actions resulting from construction are not covered in this Standard. The imposed actions shall be not less than the greater of the following: a b The actions resulting from the intended use of the structure. The imposed actions given in this Section. NOTE: The imposed actions given in this Section include sufficient allowance for the effects of vertical impact arising from the usual movement of people and shifting of furniture.
This allowance does not cover dynamic effects due to highly active crowds. Dynamic effects due to vibrating machinery are covered separately in Clause 3. The distributed and concentrated imposed loads shall be considered separately and design carried out for the most adverse effect. Distributed over the actual area of application or if the actual area is not known or otherwise stipulated in Tables 3. For floor loads, the intensity of the imposed load shall be appropriate to the loaded portion of the area under consideration see Clause 3.
For design situations involving wind, earthquake or fire emergency conditions, partial loading of alternate spans of continuous beams or slabs need not be considered. For partial loading on continuous beams, the span or two adjacent spans that contains the effect under consideration shall be loaded with an imposed load intensity, as determined from Clause 3.
NOTE: The philosophy of the Table is that each area of a floor is associated with one of the activity types. Thus in order to classify an area under consideration, the design must consider the type of activities that occur in that area.
TABLE 3. Areas subject to accumulation of goods. Areas for equipment and plant Specific uses Uniformly distributed actions kPa Reading rooms with book storage, e. Vehicles exceeding kg and not exceeding 10 kg. Driveways, ramps, repair workshops, footpaths with vehicle access, and car parking 2. Where a stair tread or landing is structurally independent of the adjoining elements, it shall be capable of withstanding a line load of 2. A concentrated load of 6.
The concentrated load shall be applied over an area of 0. Where these same areas may be subjected to loads due to physical activities or overcrowding for example a hotel dining room used as a dance floor , imposed loads shall be based on occupancy C4 or C5, as appropriate. Fixed seating is seating where the removal of the seating and the use of the space for other purposes is not likely.
For domestic garages with timber floors, this may be reduced to 9 kN applied over an area of 0. Storage areas on which imposed floor actions exceed 5 kPa. One-way slabs. R2—Other roofs, either flat or pitched as follows: i ii Structural elements supporting the cladding. Roof cladding inclusive of any associated protective mesh, or similar, which is required to support actions incidental to maintenance.
Where the structural element is not required to support a person before the cladding is in place, and there is headroom of less than 1. If provision for such loads is required, the loads should be given in the specification for the building.
The top edge or handrail shall also be designed for the case where a concentrated load of 0. The uniformly distributed line load and the uniformly distributed and concentrated loads applicable to the infill are not additive.
They shall be considered as three separate load cases. Actions due to wind or earthquake need not be assumed to act concurrently with the loads given in Table 3. Areas without obstacles for moving people and not susceptible to over-crowding Stairs, landings, external balconies, edges of roofs, etc. In the absence of such information, the factors given in Clauses 3. Gantry girders and their vertical supports shall be designed on the basis that either of the horizontal imposed actions specified in Clauses 3.
For hand-operated cranes The imposed braking action shall be half the static load imposed by the gross mass of the vehicle. The horizontal imposed action on barriers required to withstand the accidental impact from vehicles during parking shall be taken as follows: a For light traffic areas Type F as given in Table 3. Barriers at the end of straight ramps exceeding 20 m in length and intended for downward travel For barriers in medium traffic areas Type G as given in Table 3.
The impact force shall be distributed over a 1. Horizontal imposed actions due to crowd movement shall be taken as follows: a For platforms with seats, the following separate load cases not applied simultaneously , applied at floor level at each row of seats— i ii b N per linear metre of seating along the line of the seats; and N per linear metre of seating perpendicular to the line of the seats.
For platforms without seats N per square metre of plan area 0. The imposed actions of this Clause need not be applied simultaneously to the required earthquake action. Both long-term and short-term sag of areas where water may pond shall be taken into account. For mass of fire-rated masonry refer to manufacturer. For most of the boards, values in Column 2 are given only for the given thickness of board.
For other thicknesses, proportional values may be taken. Table B1 includes values for the following: a Non-habitable structures exposed to the weather in areas that are— i ii b isolated from vehicular access accessible only by foot over considerable distances ; or remote accessible only by foot where people will have to walk more than 2 days or traverse difficult terrain.
NOTES: 1 Examples include hay sheds, implement sheds, grain and fertilizer stores, coolstores for fruit and vegetables, piggeries, poultry sheds, shearing sheds, farm dairies milking sheds , greenhouses, farm workshops, fruit packing sheds, egg grading rooms, tobacco curing sheds and garages not attached to the farm residence. Loads due to silos and bunkers are not covered in this Standard. AS covers fixed platforms, walkways stairways and ladders for access to and working at places normally used by operating, inspection, maintenance and servicing personnel.
Published on 28 April AMDT No. These standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are invited to participate. The Standards Council of New Zealand is the national authority responsible for the production of Standards. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources.
Sample Calculations to Australian Standard AS1170 for design loads for a Post to a Barrier
AS Distinguishes between guardrail and handrail height top rail 3. No consideration of a direct lateral load to face of vertical element. B1 A barrier has to have a minimum height to minimise chances of a person toppling over the barrier. B3 A barrier that is not a simple rail, does not need a maximum limit on its functional height, only a lower limit. B4 Guardrails and handrails may or may not be one and the same component of a barrier system. B5 People may be pushing against a barrier at either shoulder or waist height. Such height maybe lower than the top edge of a barrier.