Bronchiectasis What Is - Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis brong-ke-EK-ta-sis is a condition in which damage to the airways causes them to widen and become flabby and scarred. The airways are tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. Bronchiectasis usually is the result of an infection or other condition that injures the walls of your airways or prevents the airways from clearing mucus. Mucus is a slimy substance that the airways produce to help remove inhaled dust, bacteria, and other small particles. In bronchiectasis, your airways slowly lose their ability to clear out mucus.
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Normal versus damaged bronchus with bronchiectasis. What is bronchiectasis? Bronchiectasis is a lung condition that causes coughing up of mucus. It is pronounced brong-kee-ek-tuh-sis.
In the lungs, the bronchi are the passages that allow air to enter the lungs. In bronchiectasis, the inside surfaces of the bronchi get thicker over time from inflammation that leave scars. Thicker walls cause mucus to collect in these passages because the walls are not strong enough to make the mucus move out of the lungs.
In addition, the cilia thin strands that look like hair and that help move mucus are destroyed. When that happens, infections can happen more easily and breathing becomes difficult. Times that breathing or coughing gets worse are called exacerbations. How common is bronchiectasis? It is estimated that there are , individuals in the United States with bronchiectasis and one person out of people aged 75 years old and older has bronchiectasis.
The risk of getting this condition increases with age. However, younger people can and do get bronchiectasis. In adults, it is much more common in women than in men. In children, it is more common in boys than girls. It is possible, but rare, for children to be born with bronchiectasis.
What are risk factors for bronchiectasis? People with the following conditions are considered to have risk factors for bronchiectasis: Chronic and inflammatory lung disease Chronic or severe lung infections, like tuberculosis , non-tuberculous mycobacteria NTM or pneumonia Deficits in the immune system Repeated aspiration breathing in of things other than air, such as food particles, that cause damage to the lungs What causes bronchiectasis?
Bronchiectasis may be caused by cystic fibrosis CF , a genetic condition that results in long-lasting lung infections and reduced ability to breathe.
CF gets worse over time. For non-CF bronchiectasis, the cause is not always known. This is called idiopathic bronchiectasis. However, in other cases, causes include: Past severe infection that has damaged the lung Genetic diseases like primary ciliary dyskinesia or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Immune system conditions that make it difficult to fight off infections Aspirating breathing in things like fluids, stomach acid, or foods into the lungs Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis , an allergy to a particular type of fungus Obstructed airways airways blocked by something like a tumor or an inhaled object What are the symptoms of bronchiectasis?
Some of the most common symptoms are: Coughing that results in a lot of mucus Coughing up mucus that has blood in it known as hemoptysis Chest pain or tightness because it is harder to breathe Wheezing or making whistling noises when breathing Clubbing of nails.
Bronchiectasia: novità dalla scienza per la cura di questa malattia dell’apparato respiratorio
Congenital[ edit ] Bronchiectasis may result from congenital disorders that affect cilia motility or ion transport. The development of bronchiectasis requires two factors: an infectious insult and impaired drainage, obstruction, or a defect in host defense. In particular, the elastic fibers of bronchi are affected. The "vicious cycle" theory is the generally accepted explanation for the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. The inflammation that results is partially responsible for the structural damage to the airways. The structural abnormalities allow for the stasis of mucus, which favors continued chronic infection and the persistence of the vicious cycle.
Bronchectasie: Causes, symptômes et traitement