Anaphora Definition of Anaphora Anaphora is a literary and rhetorical device in which a word or group of words is repeated at the beginning of two or more successive clauses or sentences. This technique adds emphasis and unity to the clauses. Difference Between Anaphora and Epiphora Anaphora and epiphora also known as epistrophe are related concepts in that they both are techniques involving repetition. While the definition of anaphora is that the repetition comes at the beginning of adjacent clauses, repetition in epiphora comes at the end of clauses. If these two devices are used together, the effect is called symploce.
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Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Adjective: anaphoric. The word that gets its meaning from a preceding word or phrase is called an anaphor.
Some linguists use anaphora as a generic term for both forward and backward reference. The term forward s anaphora is equivalent to cataphora. For the rhetorical term, see anaphora rhetoric. She likes music. In [this] example, the word she is an anaphor and refers back to a preceding expression, in this case Susan. As can be seen in this example, an anaphor is an item that commonly points backwards In war, fathers bury their sons. Shaw, March 20, Pronominal Anaphora "The most widespread type of anaphora is that of pronominal anaphora.
Pronouns first and second person singular and plural are usually used in a deictic manner Ruslan Mitkov, Anaphora Resolution. Routledge, An Extremely Good Probe "In contemporary linguistics [anaphora] is commonly used to refer to a relation between two linguistic elements, wherein the interpretation of one called an anaphor is in some way determined by the interpretation of the other called an antecedent.
Linguistic elements that can be employed as an anaphor include gaps or empty categories , pronouns, reflexives, names, and descriptions. In the first place anaphora represents one of the most complex phenomena of natural language. Thirdly anaphora. Oxford University Press,
Anaphora in Grammar
Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Richard Nordquist Updated June 19, In English grammar , cataphora is the use of a pronoun or other linguistic unit to refer ahead to another word in a sentence i. Adjective: cataphoric. Cataphora in English Grammar The word that gets its meaning from a subsequent word or phrase is called a cataphor. The subsequent word or phrase is called the antecedent , referent, or head. Anaphora vs.
Cataphora in English Grammar
Cataphora is a type of anaphora , although the terms anaphora and anaphor are sometimes used in a stricter sense, denoting only cases where the order of the expressions is the reverse of that found in cataphora. An example of cataphora in English is the following sentence: When he arrived home, John went to sleep. In this sentence, the pronoun he the cataphor appears earlier than the noun John the postcedent that it refers to. This is the reverse of the more normal pattern, "strict" anaphora, where a referring expression such as John or the soldier appears before any pronouns that reference it. Both cataphora and anaphora are types of endophora. After he had received his orders, the soldier left the barracks. If you want them, there are cookies in the kitchen.