He was raised mainly by his father, a furniture-store owner and assistant of the local rabbi. Despite being raised in a Jewish family, he became an agnostic in his teenage years. He then transferred to the theoretical physics group directed by Robert Oppenheimer at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, where he obtained his doctorate. He was active in communist and communist-backed organizations, including the Young Communist League , the Campus Committee to Fight Conscription, and the Committee for Peace Mobilization. During his time at the Radiation Laboratory, Bohm was in a relationship with the future Betty Friedan and also helped to organize a local chapter of the Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians , a small labor union affiliated to the Congress of Industrial Organizations CIO.
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He was raised mainly by his father, a furniture-store owner and assistant of the local rabbi. Despite being raised in a Jewish family, he became an agnostic in his teenage years.
He then transferred to the theoretical physics group directed by Robert Oppenheimer at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, where he obtained his doctorate. He was active in communist and communist-backed organizations, including the Young Communist League , the Campus Committee to Fight Conscription, and the Committee for Peace Mobilization. During his time at the Radiation Laboratory, Bohm was in a relationship with the future Betty Friedan and also helped to organize a local chapter of the Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians , a small labor union affiliated to the Congress of Industrial Organizations CIO.
During the war, Bohm remained at Berkeley, where he taught physics and conducted research in plasma , the synchrotron and the synchrocyclotron. He completed his PhD in by an unusual circumstance. According to biographer F. David Peat see reference below, p. Without security clearance, Bohm was denied access to his own work; not only would he be barred from defending his thesis, he was not even allowed to write his own thesis in the first place!
Bohm later performed theoretical calculations for the Calutrons at the Y facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee , which was used for the electromagnetic enrichment of uranium for the bomb dropped on Hiroshima in In May , the House Un-American Activities Committee called upon Bohm to testify because of his previous ties to unionism and suspected communists.
Bohm invoked his Fifth Amendment right to refuse to testify, and he refused to give evidence against his colleagues. He was acquitted in May , but Princeton had already suspended him. Quantum theory and Bohm diffusion[ edit ] Main articles: Bohm diffusion and De Broglie—Bohm theory The Bohmian trajectories for an electron going through the two-slit experiment. A similar pattern was also observed for single photons.
As a postgraduate at Berkeley, he developed a theory of plasmas , discovering the electron phenomenon now known as Bohm diffusion.
But Bohm became dissatisfied with the orthodox interpretation of quantum theory he wrote about in that book. Starting from the realization that the WKB approximation of quantum mechanics leads to deterministic equations and convinced that a mere approximation could not turn a probabilistic theory into a deterministic theory, he doubted the inevitability of the conventional approach to quantum mechanics.
He initially called his approach a hidden variable theory, but he later called it ontological theory, reflecting his view that a stochastic process underlying the phenomena described by his theory might one day be found. Bohm and his colleague Basil Hiley later stated that they had found their own choice of terms of an "interpretation in terms of hidden variables" to be too restrictive, especially since their variables, position, and momentum "are not actually hidden.
He applied for and received Brazilian citizenship , but by law, had to give up his US citizenship ; he was able to reclaim it only decades later, in , after pursuing a lawsuit.
Anderson , Donald Kerst , Marcos Moshinsky , Alejandro Medina, and the former assistant to Heisenberg , Guido Beck , who encouraged him in his work and helped him to obtain funding.
The Brazilian CNPq explicitly supported his work on the causal theory and funded several researchers around Bohm. His work with Vigier was the beginning of a long-standing cooperation between the two and Louis De Broglie , in particular, on connections to the hydrodynamics model proposed by Madelung. There, he met Sarah "Saral" Woolfson, whom he married in In , Bohm and Aharonov discovered the Aharonov—Bohm effect , showing how a magnetic field could affect a region of space in which the field had been shielded, but its vector potential did not vanish there.
That showed for the first time that the magnetic vector potential , hitherto a mathematical convenience, could have real physical quantum effects. His collected papers are stored there. Such features can be considered to be independent only up to a certain level of approximation in which certain criteria are fulfilled. They used the word " holomovement " for the activity in such orders. In collaboration with Stanford University neuroscientist Karl H. Pribram , Bohm was involved in the early development of the holonomic model of the functioning of the brain, a model for human cognition that is drastically different from conventionally-accepted ideas.
Those concerns were a natural extension of his earlier interest in Marxist ideology and Hegelian philosophy. His views were brought into sharper focus through extensive interactions with the psychological philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti , beginning in In the seminar, Bohm develops several interrelated themes.
He points out that thought is the ubiquitous tool that is used to solve every kind of problem: personal, social, scientific, and so on. Yet thought, he maintains, is also inadvertently the source of many of those problems. He recognizes and acknowledges the irony of the situation: it is as if one gets sick by going to the doctor. If there is a fault in the functioning of thought, therefore, it must be a systemic fault, which infects the entire network. The thought that is brought to bear to resolve any given problem, therefore, is susceptible to the same flaw that created the problem it is trying to solve.
What is required in order to correct the distortions introduced by thought, according to Bohm, is a form of proprioception , or self-awareness. Neural receptors throughout the body inform us directly of our physical position and movement, but there is no corresponding awareness of the activity of thought.
Such an awareness would represent psychological proprioception and would enable the possibility of perceiving and correcting the unintended consequences of the thinking process. In his book Science, Order and Creativity, Bohm referred to the views of various biologists on the evolution of the species, including Rupert Sheldrake. Martin Gardner reported this in a Skeptical Inquirer article and also critiqued the views of Jiddu Krishnamurti , with whom Bohm had met in and had had many subsequent exchanges.
An essential ingredient in this form of dialogue is that participants "suspend" immediate action or judgment and give themselves and each other the opportunity to become aware of the thought process itself.
Bohm suggested that if the "dialogue groups" were experienced on a sufficiently-wide scale, they could help overcome the isolation and fragmentation that Bohm observed in society. Later life[ edit ] Bohm continued his work in quantum physics after his retirement, in He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in His condition worsened and it was decided that the only treatment that might help him was electroconvulsive therapy.
Bohm showed improvement from the treatments and was released on 29 August, but his depression returned and was treated with medication.
Quanta and Reality, A Symposium, with N. Hanson and Mary B.
The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory
They develop an interpretation of quantum mechanics which gives a clear, intuitive understanding of its meaning and in which there is a coherent notion of the reality of the universe without assuming a fundamental role for the human observer. With the aid of new concepts such as active information together with non-locality, they provide a comprehensive account of all the basic features of quantum mechanics, including the relativistic domain and quantum field theory. It is shown that, with the new approach, paradoxical or unsatisfactory features associated with the standard approaches, such as the wave-particle duality and the collapse of the wave function, do not arise. Finally, the authors make new suggestions and indicate some areas in which one may expect quantum theory to break down in a way that will allow for a test. The Undivided Universe is an important book especially because it provides a different overall world view which is neither mechanistic nor reductionist.
David Bohm, Implicate Order and Holomovement
If one can get through the complex physics context of his insights, I believe he expresses a revolutionary degree of sanity and simplicity. The classical worldview is a limiting condition already contained in the quantum model, not an external to be presupposed and grappled with for historical reasons. Quantum processes occur independent of observations. Non-locality like the EPR experiments is the rule, not the exception. Mind and Matter are both expressions of the same implicit holistic flow, not opposed to each other or separated arbitrarily. In short, this book makes a highly articulate case for an ontological holism that has the ability to make intuitive, graspable, simple in its own way sense of the physical world and Everything. It is worth reading even for the physics novice.
Download EBOOK The Undivided Universe PDF for free
Overview[ edit ] The notion of implicate and explicate orders emphasizes the primacy of structure and process over individual objects. The latter are seen as mere approximations of an underlying process. In this approach, quantum particles and other objects are understood to have only a limited degree of stability and autonomy. In the words of F.