There is no information before the 5th century and very little then; and throughout the whole period there was, to judge by existing documents and descriptions, so much diversity that, though the general outlines of the rite were of the same pattern, the name must not be taken to imply more than a very moderate amount of homogeneity. The Rite of Iberia was used from the 5th century in Roman provinces within the Roman civil diocese of Hispania to the end of the 11th century, and lingered as an archaeological survival in chapels at Toledo and Salamanca. It was so nearly allied to the Gallican Rite that the term Hispano-Gallican is often applied to the two. But the Iberian Mozarabic Rite has, like the allied Celtic Rite , enough of an independent history to require separate treatment, so that though it will be necessary to allude to both by way of illustration, this article will be devoted primarily to the rite once used in what is now France. Of the origin of the Gallican Rite there are three principal theories, between two of which the controversy is not yet settled.
|Published (Last):||11 June 2007|
|PDF File Size:||19.43 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||10.91 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
There is no information before the 5th century and very little then; and throughout the whole period there was, to judge by existing documents and descriptions, so much diversity that, though the general outlines of the rite were of the same pattern, the name must not be taken to imply more than a very moderate amount of homogeneity.
The Rite of Iberia was used from the 5th century in Roman provinces within the Roman civil diocese of Hispania to the end of the 11th century, and lingered as an archaeological survival in chapels at Toledo and Salamanca. It was so nearly allied to the Gallican Rite that the term Hispano-Gallican is often applied to the two. But the Iberian Mozarabic Rite has, like the allied Celtic Rite , enough of an independent history to require separate treatment, so that though it will be necessary to allude to both by way of illustration, this article will be devoted primarily to the rite once used in what is now France.
Of the origin of the Gallican Rite there are three principal theories, between two of which the controversy is not yet settled. These theories may be termed: the Ephesine, the Ambrosian, and the Roman. Ephesine theory[ edit ] The Ephesine theory, first put forward by William Palmer in Origines Liturgicae, was once very popular among Anglican scholars.
Pothinus and Irenaeus , who had received it through Polycarp from John of Patmos. This theory "may be dismissed as practically disproved," according to Henry Jenner , in Catholic Encyclopedia.
Ambrosian theory[ edit ] The second theory is that which Louis Duchesne puts forward in place of the Ephesine. He holds that Milan , not Lugdunum Lyon , was the principal centre of Gallican development. He lays great stress on the incontestable importance of Mediolanum Milan as the capital of the Western Roman Empire from to and of the Church of Milan in the late 4th century , and conjectures that a liturgy of Oriental origin, introduced perhaps by Auxentius the Arian bishop of Milan from to , spread from the capital city , Mediolanum, to the Roman provinces in Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia.
Duchesne points out that "the Gallican Liturgy in the features which distinguish it from the Roman, betrays all the characteristics of the Eastern Orthodox liturgies," and that "some of its formularies are to be found word for word in the Greek Orthodox texts which were in use in the Churches of the Syro-Byzantine Rite either in the fourth century or somewhat later," and infers from this that, "the Gallican Liturgy is an Oriental liturgy, introduced into the West towards the middle of the fourth century.
Controverting the third or Roman theory of origin, he stresses that Pope Innocent I in a letter to Decentius , bishop of Gubbio , spoke of usages which Duchesne recognizes as Gallican e. He assumes that the Ambrosian Rite is not really Roman, but Gallican, much Romanized at a later period, and that the Gubbio variations of which Innocent I complained were borrowed from Milan. Roman theory[ edit ] The third theory is perhaps rather complicated to state without danger of misrepresentation, and has not been so definitely stated as the other two by any one writer.
It is held in part by Milanese liturgists[ who? In order to state it clearly it will be necessary to point out first certain details in which all the Latin or Western rites agree with one another in differing from the Eastern, and in this we speak only of the Mass, which is of far more importance than either the canonical hours or the occasional services in determining origins.
There are, it is true, alternative anaphoras which are used either ad libitum , as in the Syro-Jacobite Rite, or on certain days, as in Byzantine and East Syrian, but they are complete in themselves and do not contain passages appropriate to the day. The lections of course vary with the day in all rites, and varying antiphons , troparia , etc. Certain varying prayers of the Hispano-Gallican Rite have a tendency to fall into couples, a Bidding Prayer , or invitation to pray, sometimes of considerable length and often partaking of the nature of a homily , addressed to the congregation, and a collect embodying the suggestions of the Bidding Prayer, addressed to God.
These Bidding Prayers have survived in the Roman Rite in the Good Friday intercessory prayers, and they occur in a form borrowed later from the Gallican in the ordination services, but in general the invitation to prayer is reduced to its lowest terms in the word Oremus. The Western liturgies date from the Passion, Qui pridie quam pateretur, for which, though of course the fact is found there, there is no verbal Scriptural warrant.
The Mozarabic of today uses the Pauline words, and no Gallican Recital of the Institution remains in full; but in both the prayer that follows is called with alternative nomenclature in the Gallican post-Pridie and the catchwords "Qui pridie" come at the end of the post-Sanctus in the Gallican Masses, so that it is clear that this form existed in both.
These variations from the Eastern usages are of an early date, and it is inferred from them, and from other considerations more historical than liturgical, that a liturgy with these peculiarities was the common property of Gaul, Hispania, and Italy.
Whether, as is most likely, it originated in Rome and spread thence to the countries under direct Roman influence, or whether it originated elsewhere and was adopted by Rome, there is no means of knowing. The adoption must have happened when liturgies were in rather a fluid state. The Gallicans may have carried to an extreme the changes begun at Rome, and may have retained some archaic features which had been later dropped by Rome. During the 4th century — it has been conjectured that it was in the papacy of Pope Damasus I — — liturgical reforms were made at Rome: the position of the Great Intercession and of the Pax were altered, the latter perhaps because the form of the dismissal of the catechumens was disused, and the distinction between the first part, the Mass of the Catechumens , and second part, the Mass of the Faithful, was no longer needed, and therefore the want was felt of a position with some meaning to it for the sign of Christian unity.
The long and diffuse prayers were made into the short and crisp collects of the Roman type. It was then that the variable post-Sanctus and post-Pridie were altered into a fixed Canon of a type similar to the Roman Canon of today, though perhaps this Canon began with the clause which now reads "Quam oblationem", but according to the pseudo-Ambrosian tract De Sacramentis once read "Fac nobis hanc oblationem".
This may have been introduced by a short, variable post-Sanctus. This reform, possibly through the influence of Ambrose, was adopted at Milan, but not in Gaul and Hispania. At a still later period, during the 5th and 6th centuries, changes were again made at Rome, principally attributed to Pope Leo I , Pope Gelasius I , and Pope Gregory I ; these three popes are the eponyms of three varying sacramentaries. These later reforms were not adopted at Milan which retained the books of the first reform, which are now known as Ambrosian.
Summary of origins[ edit ] Hence it may be seen that, roughly speaking, the Western or Latin Liturgy went through three phases, which may be called for want of better names the Gallican, the Ambrosian, and the Roman stages.
The holders of the theory no doubt recognize that the demarcation between these stages is rather vague, and that the alterations were in many respects gradual. Of the three theories of origin, the Ephesine may be dismissed as practically disproved. To both of the other two the same objection may be urged, that they are largely founded on conjecture and on the critical examination of documents of a much later date than the periods to which the conjectures relate.
But at present there is little else to go upon. It may be well to mention also a theory put forward by W. Bishop in Church Quarterly for July , to the effect that the Gallican Liturgy was not introduced into Gaul from anywhere but was the original liturgy of that country, apparently invented and developed there. He speaks of an original independence of Rome of course liturgically only followed by later borrowings.
This does not seem to exclude the idea that Rome and the West may have had the germ of the Western Rite in common. Again the theory is conjectural and is only very slightly stated in the article. Later history of the Gallican Rite[ edit ] The later history of the Gallican Rite until the time of its abolition as a separate rite is obscure. In Hispania there was a definite centre in Toledo whose influence was felt over the whole peninsula, even after the coming of the Moors.
Hence it was that the Hispanic Rite was much more regulated than the Gallican, and Toledo at times, though not very successfully, tried to give liturgical laws even to Gaul, though probably only to the Visigothic part of it. In the greater part of France there was liturgical anarchy. There was no capital to give laws to the whole country, and the rite developed there variously in different places, so that among the scanty fragments of the service-books that remain there is a marked absence of verbal uniformity, though the main outlines of the services are of the same type.
Several councils attempted to regulate matters a little, but only for certain episcopal provinces. The changes in the Roman Rite happened rather gradually during the course of the late 7th and 8th century, and seem synchronous with the rise of the Mayors of the Palace , and their development into kings of France. Nearly all the Gallican books of the later Merovingian period, which are all that are left, contain many Roman elements. In some cases there is reason to suppose that the Roman Canon was first introduced into an otherwise Gallican Mass, but the so-called Gelasian Sacramentary, the principal manuscript of which is attributed to the Abbey of St.
Denis and the early 8th century, is an avowedly Roman book, though containing Gallican additions and adaptations. And the same may be said of what is left of the undoubtedly Frankish book known as the Missale Francorum of the same date. Duchesne attributes a good deal of this 8th-century Romanizing tendency to Boniface , though he shows that it had begun before his day.
The Roman Liturgy was adopted at Metz in the time of Chrodegang — Pope Adrian I between and sent to Charlemagne at his own request a copy of what was considered to be the Gregorian Sacramentary, but which certainly represented the Roman use of the end of the 8th century.
This book, which was far from complete, was edited and supplemented by the addition of a large amount of matter derived from the Gallican books and from the Roman book known as the Gelasian Sacramentary, which had been gradually supplanting the Gallican. Subsequently with the Normans the Gallican rite in the Kingdom of Sicily is the official liturgy.
Other uses of the name Gallican[ edit ] The name Gallican has also been applied to two other uses: a French use introduced by the Normans into Apulia and Sicily. This was only a variant of the Roman Rite. These have nothing to do with the ancient Gallican Rite. Manuscripts and other sources[ edit ] There are no manuscripts of the Gallican Rite earlier than the later part of the 7th century, though the descriptions in the letters of Germain of Paris —76 take one back another century.
They were discovered by Franz Mone in in a palimpsest manuscript from the Abbey of Reichenau , in the library of Karlsruhe. It contains eleven Masses of purely Gallican type, one of which is a Mass for the feast of Germanus of Auxerre , but the others do not specify any festival.
One Mass is written entirely in hexameter verse, except for the post-Pridie which is prose. The Mai fragments begin with part of a Bidding Prayer and contain a fragment of a Contestatio, with that title, and fragments of other prayers, two of which have the title "Post Nomina", and two others which seem to be prayers ad Pacem. Only a fragment, it begins with a Mass for the feast of Germanus of Auxerre, after which come prayers for the Blessing of Virgins and Widows, two Advent Masses, the Christmas Eve Mass, the expositio symboli and traditio symboli and other ceremonies preparatory to Baptism ; also the Maundy Thursday , Good Friday and Easter Sunday ceremonies and the baptismal service, Masses for the Sundays after Easter up to the Rogation Mass, where the manuscript breaks off.
Masses, as in Gothicum, are Gallican in order with many Roman prayers. The Good Friday prayers are, with a few verbal variations, exactly as those in the Roman Missal. The name is due to a 15th-century note at the beginning of the book, and hence it has been attributed by Tommasi and Jean Mabillon to Narbonne , which was in the Visigothic Kingdom. Duchesne, judging by the inclusion of Masses for the feast of Symphorian and the feast of Leodegar d.
Probably there were once two Advent Masses, as in Gallicanum. There are eighty-one numbered sections, of which the last is the first prayer of "Missa Romensif cottidiana", with which the manuscript breaks off. The details of Masses in this book are given in the section of the present article on the liturgical year. Masses are all Gallican as to order, but many of the actual prayers are Roman. At the end are the lessons of a few special Masses, for the burial of a bishop, for the dedication of a church, when a bishop preaches, "et plebs decimas reddat", when a deacon is ordained, when a priest is blessed, "in profectione itineris", and "lectiones cotidianae".
This lectionary is purely Gallican with no apparent Roman influence. The manuscript has not been printed in its entirety, but Mabillon, in De Liturgia Gallicana, gives references to all the lessons and the beginnings and endings of the text.
Germanus of Paris[ edit ] The Letters of St. Germanus of Paris are from a manuscript at Autun. There appears to be no reason to doubt that they are genuine. They contain mystical interpretations of the ceremonies of the Mass and of other services. Duchesne says of the descriptions, on which the interpretations are based, that "We may reconstruct from the letters a kind of Ordo Gallicanus".
A comparison with the Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite may also be of service, while most lacunae in our knowledge of the Gallican Rite may reasonably be conjecturally filled up from the Mozarabic books, which even in their present form are those of substantially the same rite. There are also liturgical allusions in certain 5th and 6th century writers: Hilary of Poitiers , Sulpicius Severus , Caesarius of Arles , and especially Gregory of Tours , and some information may be gathered from the decrees of the Gallican councils mentioned above.
The principal of these are as follows. The manuscripts are of the early 8th century. The groundwork is Roman, with Gallican additions and modifications. Evidence for the Gallican rites of ordination and some other matters is derived from this book. It represents the sacramentary sent by Adrian I to Charlemagne, after it had been rearranged and supplemented by Gelasian and Gallican editions in France.
It is probable that there were many variations in different times and places, and that the influence of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum brought about gradual assimilation to Rome. The year, as is usual, began with Advent. Gothicum and the Luxeuil Lectionary both begin with Christmas Eve. In both Gothicum and Gallicanum a large space is given to the services of the two days before Easter, and in the latter the expositio symboli and traditio symboli are given at great length.
The moveable feasts depended, of course, on Easter. When the Roman Church altered the Easter computation from the old year-cycle to the new Victorius Aquitaine year-cycle in , the Gallican Church, unlike the Celts, did the same; but when, in , the Roman Church adopted the Dionysius Exiguus year-cycle, the Gallican Church continued to use the year-cycle, until the end of the 8th or beginning of the 9th century.
Share An image from the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald Sacramentary of Metz of about The Sacramentary is a book of the Middle Ages containing the words spoken by the priest celebrating a Mass and other church services. The books were usually in fact written for bishops or other higher clegy such as abbots, and many lavishly decorated illuminated manuscript sacramentaries have survived. Though in the late twentieth century the word "sacramentary" was used in the United States for the English translation of the Roman Missal , a true sacramentary is not the same as a Missal. It contains more than a missal in terms of other services, and less in that texts and readings said by others during the Mass are not included.
Description[ edit ] It is made up of leaves written in Carolingian minuscule with uncials and incipits. It was produced by an Italian copyist and illuminator, probably at Regensburg , since it includes a calendar with the usage of Fulda Abbey and mass formularies used in the diocese of Regensburg. Due to the archaic style of its first pages, it was once misattributed to saint Gregory , for example by Angelo Rocca in The canon tables are on a double page spread at the start the recto of leaf 1 and the verso of leaf 2 , decorated with arches with floral and geometric motifs reminiscent of peacocks symbols of the resurrection of Christ and half-palms. The first page is typical of Ottonian or Carolingian art.