Adequate classification capacity of the 3 item subset of the VABS Reading skills, Writing skills, and Times and dates to correctly classify Researchers used multivariate analysis to compare scores of participants with ID and an associated motor, communication, or social behavior disorder to scores of a matched control participant with only ID. No other measure of discriminant validity was reported. Bibliography Balboni, G. Research in developmental disabilities, 61,
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Abstract Objective: The present study seeks to outline a holistic assessment method that was used in understanding problems experienced by an adolescent boy and in designing and implementing an individualized educational program. Methods: An adolescent child referred for concerns in learning was screened for learning disability using standardized inventories and test batteries.
An individualized educational program was designed and this intervention was provided for 6 months by using parents as co-therapists. Participant and parent interview schedules were used in identifying underlying issues of concern. The child was reassessed 6 months after the intervention was provided. Results: Findings on the Connors Parent Rating Scale revealed scores that were greater than the 50th percentile on the domains of inattention and cognitive problems.
On the Connors Teacher Rating Scale, we observed scores greater than the 50th percentile on the hyperactivity, cognitive problems, and the inattention domains. The Kinetic Family Drawing Test revealed negative emotions within the child.
Post intervention, we noticed a remarkable improvement in the scores across all domains of behavior, social, and cognitive functioning. Conclusion: Designing an individualized education program that is tailored to the specific needs of the child and using parents as co-therapists proved to be an effective intervention. Key Words: Adolescence, Co-therapists, Disability, Individualized Educational Program Introduction Learning disability is best described as a disorder in which one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, manifests itself as an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations 1.
This includes conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injuries, minimal brain dysfunctions, dyslexia, and developmental aphasias 2.
However, it does not include learning disabilities that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantages according to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act formulated in 3. Learning disabilities fall into broad categories based on four stages of information processing that are used in learning; input, integration, storage, and output 4. Dyslexia is characterized by deficits in reading and is most often termed as a reading disability.
This can affect any part of the reading process including difficulty with accurate or fluent word recognition, or both , word decoding, reading rate, prosody oral reading with expression , and reading comprehension. Before the term "dyslexia" came to prominence, it was known as "word blindness" 6.
Common indicators of reading disability include difficulty with phonemic awareness the ability to break up words into their component sounds and difficulty with matching letter combinations to specific sounds also known as sound-symbol correspondence 7. Impaired written language ability may include impairments in handwriting, spelling, organization of ideas, and composition.
This term was used as an overarching term for all disorders of written expression. Others, such as the International Dyslexia Association, have used the term "dysgraphia" exclusively to refer to difficulties with handwriting only 8.
Sometimes called dyscalculia, a math disability can cause such difficulties as learning math concepts, such as quantity, place value, and in understanding the concept of time 9. It may also characterize difficulties in memorizing math facts, difficulty organizing numbers, and understanding how problems are organized on a page. Dyscalculic children are often referred to as having poor "number sense" There can be another type of learning disability called the nonverbal learning disability.
This often manifests as motor clumsiness, poor visual-spatial skills, problematic social relationships, difficulty with math, and poor organizational skills.
These individuals often have specific strengths in the verbal domains, including early speech, large vocabulary, early reading and spelling skills, excellent rote-memory and auditory retention, and eloquent self-expression Learning disabilities are often identified by school psychologists, clinical psychologists, and neuropsychologists through a combination of intelligence testing, academic achievement testing, classroom performance, social interaction, and aptitude testing Other areas of assessment may include perception, cognition, memory, attention, and language abilities.
These tests include measures of many academic domains that are reliable in identifying areas of difficulty Currently, almost 2. In fact, over half of all children who receive special education have a learning disability 24th Annual Report to Congress, This awareness was demonstrated by a meta-analysis that explored the relation between learning disability and behavioral problems Furthermore, there were also other significant researches that explored the relationship between learning disability and social skill deficits Both of these studies provided convincing evidence that children and adolescents with learning issues experience social problems such as low self-esteem, emotional difficulties like depression, and also conduct problems such as aggression.
This includes early screening for children, placing those who are having difficulty into research-based early intervention programs, rather than waiting until they meet diagnostic criteria Their performance can be closely monitored to determine whether increasingly intense intervention results in adequate progress. Those who respond will not require further intervention Early remediation can also greatly reduce the number of children meeting diagnostic criteria for learning disabilities.
Focus on learning disabilities and the provision of accommodations in school fail to acknowledge that people have a range of strengths and weaknesses, and places undue emphasis on academic success by insisting that people should receive additional support in this arena but not in music or sports The IEP also describes how the student learns, how the student best demonstrates that learning and what teachers and service providers will do to help the student learn more effectively.
In this study, we explored the cognitive, behavioral, and social profile of an adolescent boy and also determined the impact of learning disability on the family by the use of interview schedules.
Parent, child, and teacher reports were used to identify issues of concern that hindered the child from coping well at home and school.
The focus of the study was to draw attention to the use of an individualized education program IEP which was designed by the professional team using parents as co-therapists. The effect of the intervention was verified by reassessing the child six months after the therapeutic intervention. Materials and Methods Setting The present study is a case description of the assessment methods used for an adolescent child with learning disability. Upon examination by the pediatrician, he was diagnosed with learning disability and was referred to the psychologist for further evaluations.
They were reassured that personal interviews with the child, parent, or the teacher will be kept confidential and for this purpose a one-way-mirror room was used.
All the assessments were done in the clinical setting by the psychologist working at the Developmental Pediatrics Department of the hospital both pre and post intervention. Participants The study was conducted on a 13 year old adolescent boy who was a single child with no siblings belonging to a middle-class North Indian family at Manali, India. The child was studying in the 8th grade at a private school at Manali. The inclusion criteria adopted for this study are that the child must present with concerns in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and the age of the child must be between years.
The child must be referred for a psychological assessment to screen for learning disability and to implement an intervention. There should be no other previous history of interventions used for the child.
The exclusion criteria adopted are that there must be no indications of personality, mood, or anxiety disorders in the child, and that there should be no other comorbidities such as hearing loss or neurological impairments.
Procedures The screening for learning disability was performed by the psychologist of the Developmental Pediatrics Department pre and post intervention and comprised of 6 sessions each. Testing of intelligence, behavior, and the social skills were performed in 3 sessions and interviewing the child and parents in 2 sessions. Scheduled interviews and careful participant observation were used as part of the assessment.
Discussion on the individualized educational program IEP , which was the intervention that focused on implementing assistive techniques for improving academic performance, was performed in 1 session. The IEP was planned by the psychologist after consulting and coordinating with the concerned pediatrician, and occupational and speech therapists who also spent time with the child and his family.
They provided intervention strategies to enhance writing and communication skills. Projective tests such as the Kinetic Family Drawing Test KFD were administered to understand underlying family issues and concerns within the child. Brief scheduled interviews with the child, parents, and the teacher were conducted to obtain information regarding the behavior of the child at home and school. The design of the individualized education program IEP was tailored to the specific needs of the child and parents were instrumental in providing feedback and in planning the intervention.
The teacher too played a vital role in following the suggestions in school and in keeping the professional team informed of the progress made.
The school was approached for making reforms in accommodating the changes that the child needed in his learning style. Suggestions on improving his communication, social skills, and self- esteem were also included in the IEP. To develop reading and listening skills, we encouraged the family to spend time conversing and reading short stories to him.
They could motivate him to develop reading habit by buying him short and easy to read story books. They could also read the headlines of the newspaper to him, which may help introduce him to new words and sentence styles. He could begin by reading aloud alone and then in front of his parents, and gradually he could be trained to read to his peers. This will enable him to cope with his shyness and reading anxiety.
To develop his vocabulary skills, we encouraged the family to introduce new words to him every day. They could do this whenever they went shopping or when they visited the market or when they were driving home from school. Words that could be taught along with pleasurable experiences would be retained for a longer time. They could also positively reinforce the child with encouraging compliments whenever he made an attempt to use those words. Since the child found it difficult to narrate experiences, we encouraged the family to allow the child to look at a picture and then describe slowly what he saw in the picture.
This would help the child improve in his speaking and communication skills. He could also listen to a short story on an audiotape and then try to narrate the story to his mother or father. This will improve his ability to remember and recall information. We discussed with the parents whether they could consider the use of assistive technology in helping him learn.
The child could watch useful documentaries and animated videos on science, English, and arithmetic. This would instill interest and also make learning easier and interesting for him. We suggested the use of highlighters and special glitter pens while reading to improve visual attention and concentration. He could also audiotape the lessons that the teacher taught in school and listen to them at leisure at home. This would greatly reduce the stress at school and help the child learn at his own pace.
We suggested the use of computers to reduce the burden on writing. Since the child found it difficult to complete his homework or to copy large texts of information, using the computer may help reduce writing stress and also enhance his creativity. The child could type his answers instead of using the notebook and hence avoid fatigue and messy work.
Experience based learning was suggested for the understanding of concepts in arithmetic. He could play shopping class at home to understand the concept of money. His parents could give him currency and then teach him calculations and simple transactions with it. Every hour, he could practice by telling the time and his parents could help him understand simple calculations by asking him to go to the shop and purchase items such as a soap or oil. This would help the child understand and execute simple mathematical calculations mentally.
They could also stick arithmetic number tables beside his bed so that he could revise them before going to sleep. Peer learning at school was suggested to increase social skills and to instill self-confidence in the child. The teacher could help by asking a few children to sit together after school hours and help one another discuss and review homework and assignments.
This would not only help children in gaining better understanding of academic work, but would also promote healthy relationships. The child would benefit from this experience by gaining self-acceptance and feeling more secure in the classroom.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
Abstract Objective: The present study seeks to outline a holistic assessment method that was used in understanding problems experienced by an adolescent boy and in designing and implementing an individualized educational program. Methods: An adolescent child referred for concerns in learning was screened for learning disability using standardized inventories and test batteries. An individualized educational program was designed and this intervention was provided for 6 months by using parents as co-therapists. Participant and parent interview schedules were used in identifying underlying issues of concern.
Vineland Social Maturity Scale
Doll, E. Your Child Grows Up. Clinical Integration. Design of the Scale.